PARIS — Annoyed at their government, the French have taken to the streets brandishing drinks.
With bars still closed despite the loosening of France’s coronavirus lockdown, the pre-dinner drinking tradition of the apéro has given way to the apérue: clusters of revelers on the streets, or rues, of Paris, outside establishments that are allowed to offer takeout.
“They’re forcing us to do infantile things all the time,” said Frédérick Cassea, who was having drinks with two friends in front of Le Syndicat, a bar in the 10th arrondissement.
“We’re all adults, we’re all responsible, we’re all aware of what’s going on,’’ Mr. Cassea added, describing the apérue and other acts of “civil disobedience” as a reaction to the government’s “catastrophic” handling of the epidemic. “Treating us like kids doesn’t work for long.”
France is emerging from one of the world’s strictest lockdowns, two months during which people had to fill out paperwork just to step out of their homes. But as restrictions remain, the French are now testing the limits of what the government will allow, in a continuing cat-and-mouse game that speaks to an unusually personal and emotional relationship between the individual and the state.
On Thursday, the government said that France’s initial reopening had gone better than expected and announced further measures to take effect in the coming days.
Secondary school students will head back to the classroom in most of the country. Parks and beaches will be reopened nationwide. People, now restricted to a radius of 100 kilometers — about 60 miles — from their homes will be able to travel freely again.
But the government remained cautious, especially in reopening Paris, the area hardest hit by the virus. Restaurants, cafes and bars will be able to serve customers only on terraces. Swimming pools, sports facilities, concert halls and theaters will not reopen until the third week of June. Nationwide, gatherings of 10 people at a time and group sports will also remain prohibited until then. The government also urged people to keep working at home.
In recent days across the country, amid expectations that the government would ease the rules, a growing number of people were already staring to ignore of them. In Marseille, beachgoers illegally dipped into the Mediterranean Sea, while in Strasbourg a crowd of some 300 supporters gathered around a soccer field on Sunday to watch a game.
Fearing that people would misbehave, the government for weeks refused a request from the Paris mayor to reopen the city’s parks. Accusing the government of “infantilizing” them, Parisians — no masks, no social distancing — have begun taking their apérues outside bars, or along city canals, the banks of the Seine or the sprawling lawns of the Invalides. The police are sent in. Feelings are hurt.
“It’s a trap,” Martin Legagneux, in the middle of an apérue with Mr. Cassea, said, referring to the Canal Saint-Martin, a popular spot where throngs enjoying wine and beer in the Paris spring have been dispersed by the police.
With city parks closed, Mr. Legagneux added, people were drawn to the canal, where they stood and sat too close to one another, in too great numbers, drawing rebukes from the authorities.
“Regarding the irresponsibility of some people and their behavior, I find it a bit easy to point out this kind of thing when the state, originally, should have taken action much sooner,” said Mr. Legagneux who, like most French, believed that the government was slow and unprepared in face of the epidemic.
The epidemic spiraled out of control in France, which lacked the masks, tests and contact tracing infrastructure to rein in the initial outbreak. France has suffered one of the world’s worst fatality rates from Covid-19 and more than 28,500 deaths, ranking only behind the United States, Britain and Italy.
Since the lockdown was first relaxed on May 11, infections and deaths have continued to decrease, thanks to the continuing practice of working from home, a very gradual increase in social interactions, the wearing of face masks, and a possible weakening of the virus, said Nicolas Revel, the head of France’s health insurance system, which is managing the country’s new contact tracing efforts.
But Mr. Revel said that he was worried by the increasing numbers of people out in public places.
“Anything that, during a period when the circulation of the virus remains present, boosts close contact is obviously a potential source of risk,” he said.
As the coronavirus spread across the globe in recent months, it has sharpened, in each country, the different relationship between government and citizen.
In France, “the state is sacred, and has remained monarchical, it is transcendent, and so we expect a lot of the state,” said Michel Wieviorka, a sociologist who is writing a book on the relationship between the French and the state. “But there is a certain ambivalence. At the same time that we’d like the state to take care of everything, we’d like it to allow us to decide what we want.”
As a result, “gray zones” emerge in which unspoken negotiations take place, Mr. Wieviorka said, adding, “It’s a very powerful state but one with which you can reach a compromise, so the French are searching for how far they can take this or that.”
During the 55-day lockdown, the police carried out 20 million spot checks in public places and issued 1.1 million fines, mostly to people who had left home without filling out the proper forms.
One of them was Émilien, a 23-year-old student in Paris who spent the lockdown on Île de Ré, an island with many vacation homes, and was fined 135 euros, or about $150, for being outside without the form.
He and a friend went jogging in a forest that was closed to the public on a recent Saturday, when they ran into two police officers issuing warnings to two other offenders, recalled Émilien, who asked that his last name not be used for fear of running afoul of the authorities he evaded.
Frequently Asked Questions and Advice
Updated May 28, 2020
What’s the risk of catching coronavirus from a surface?
Touching contaminated objects and then infecting ourselves with the germs is not typically how the virus spreads. But it can happen. A number of studies of flu, rhinovirus, coronavirus and other microbes have shown that respiratory illnesses, including the new coronavirus, can spread by touching contaminated surfaces, particularly in places like day care centers, offices and hospitals. But a long chain of events has to happen for the disease to spread that way. The best way to protect yourself from coronavirus — whether it’s surface transmission or close human contact — is still social distancing, washing your hands, not touching your face and wearing masks.
What are the symptoms of coronavirus?
Common symptoms include fever, a dry cough, fatigue and difficulty breathing or shortness of breath. Some of these symptoms overlap with those of the flu, making detection difficult, but runny noses and stuffy sinuses are less common. The C.D.C. has also added chills, muscle pain, sore throat, headache and a new loss of the sense of taste or smell as symptoms to look out for. Most people fall ill five to seven days after exposure, but symptoms may appear in as few as two days or as many as 14 days.
How can I protect myself while flying?
If air travel is unavoidable, there are some steps you can take to protect yourself. Most important: Wash your hands often, and stop touching your face. If possible, choose a window seat. A study from Emory University found that during flu season, the safest place to sit on a plane is by a window, as people sitting in window seats had less contact with potentially sick people. Disinfect hard surfaces. When you get to your seat and your hands are clean, use disinfecting wipes to clean the hard surfaces at your seat like the head and arm rest, the seatbelt buckle, the remote, screen, seat back pocket and the tray table. If the seat is hard and nonporous or leather or pleather, you can wipe that down, too. (Using wipes on upholstered seats could lead to a wet seat and spreading of germs rather than killing them.)
How many people have lost their jobs due to coronavirus in the U.S.?
More than 40 million people — the equivalent of 1 in 4 U.S. workers — have filed for unemployment benefits since the pandemic took hold. One in five who were working in February reported losing a job or being furloughed in March or the beginning of April, data from a Federal Reserve survey released on May 14 showed, and that pain was highly concentrated among low earners. Fully 39 percent of former workers living in a household earning $40,000 or less lost work, compared with 13 percent in those making more than $100,000, a Fed official said.
Is ‘Covid toe’ a symptom of the disease?
There is an uptick in people reporting symptoms of chilblains, which are painful red or purple lesions that typically appear in the winter on fingers or toes. The lesions are emerging as yet another symptom of infection with the new coronavirus. Chilblains are caused by inflammation in small blood vessels in reaction to cold or damp conditions, but they are usually common in the coldest winter months. Federal health officials do not include toe lesions in the list of coronavirus symptoms, but some dermatologists are pushing for a change, saying so-called Covid toe should be sufficient grounds for testing.
Can I go to the park?
Yes, but make sure you keep six feet of distance between you and people who don’t live in your home. Even if you just hang out in a park, rather than go for a jog or a walk, getting some fresh air, and hopefully sunshine, is a good idea.
How do I take my temperature?
Taking one’s temperature to look for signs of fever is not as easy as it sounds, as “normal” temperature numbers can vary, but generally, keep an eye out for a temperature of 100.5 degrees Fahrenheit or higher. If you don’t have a thermometer (they can be pricey these days), there are other ways to figure out if you have a fever, or are at risk of Covid-19 complications.
Should I wear a mask?
The C.D.C. has recommended that all Americans wear cloth masks if they go out in public. This is a shift in federal guidance reflecting new concerns that the coronavirus is being spread by infected people who have no symptoms. Until now, the C.D.C., like the W.H.O., has advised that ordinary people don’t need to wear masks unless they are sick and coughing. Part of the reason was to preserve medical-grade masks for health care workers who desperately need them at a time when they are in continuously short supply. Masks don’t replace hand washing and social distancing.
What should I do if I feel sick?
If you’ve been exposed to the coronavirus or think you have, and have a fever or symptoms like a cough or difficulty breathing, call a doctor. They should give you advice on whether you should be tested, how to get tested, and how to seek medical treatment without potentially infecting or exposing others.
How do I get tested?
If you’re sick and you think you’ve been exposed to the new coronavirus, the C.D.C. recommends that you call your healthcare provider and explain your symptoms and fears. They will decide if you need to be tested. Keep in mind that there’s a chance — because of a lack of testing kits or because you’re asymptomatic, for instance — you won’t be able to get tested.
How can I help?
Charity Navigator, which evaluates charities using a numbers-based system, has a running list of nonprofits working in communities affected by the outbreak. You can give blood through the American Red Cross, and World Central Kitchen has stepped in to distribute meals in major cities.
“The moment we saw them, they were about 10 meters away,” or about 30 feet, he said. “We sprinted off, with one of the officers chasing after us. It lasted maybe 30 seconds. He wasn’t dressed suitably at all. He was wearing pants and we had a head start. He ran pretty fast, but eventually he gave up.”
Émilien explained that he didn’t want to incur another fine. But he also thought that closing off the forest, or a nearby beach, made little sense.
“I felt like a child being punished without understanding what I did wrong,” he said.
Critics have said that the French government has infantilized its own citizens by making the relaxing of restrictions dependent on people’s behavior, as if it were a parent dangling rewards in front of children.
In early May, the junior minister for tourism, Jean-Baptiste Lemoyne, said that summer vacations, which are sacred in France, would “depend on the efforts that people will be able to make throughout the reopening phase,” infuriating social media users who mocked the French state’s own mistakes in preparing for the crisis.
With parks and bars still closed in Paris, people have sought every inch of available space for their apérue, including a roundabout in Place de la Nation. There, groups ranging from two to eight people shared pre-dinner drinks, with bursts of laughter punctuating conversations, as they enjoyed the last rays of sunshine.
“If the parks were open, I wouldn’t have come here — it’s too noisy and polluted,” said Nabil Hamidi, a 32-year-old bank employee, pointing to the surrounding traffic. “But this is the only place we can find that’s open.”
The government has yet to say when bars might reopen. But squeezed between Mr. Hamidi’s legs was what he called “the bar,” a black backpack containing a few bottles of alcohol and evidence, for now, of the compromise between one French citizen and the state.